Task: Finish each of the sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the given one. Ավարտեք յուրաքանչյուր նախադասությունը այնպես, որ այն արտահայտի տրված նախադասության ճիշտ նույն իմաստը:
- Despite the hot sunny weather, she was wearing a warm coat.
Even though it was hot sunny weather, she was wearing a warm coat.
- Although there was much snow in the fields, we managed to reach our destination.
In spite of much snow in the fields, we managed to reach our destination.
- Despite having a map, we got lost in that vicinity.
Although we had a map, we got lost in that vicinity.
- Even though it was snowing, I felt warm.
Despite the fact that it was snowing, I felt warm.
- In spite of the fact that he had had a sufficient breakfast, he had an enormous appetite at lunchtime. Despite the fact that he had had a sufficient breakfast, he had an enormous appetite at lunchtime.
We can say, “Did your journey last two weeks?” We can agree with the speaker by saying, “Yes, we had a two-week journey.”
Are there two rooms in your flat? Երկու՞ սենյակ կա ձեր բնակարանում:
Yes, it is a two-room flat. Այո, դա երկու սենյամանոց բնակարան է:
Task: Agree with the speaker by expressing the same idea in another way.
- Did your walk take 15 minutes?
Yes, we had a 15-minute walk. Այո, մենք ունեցանք 15 րոպեանոց զբոսանք:
- Did the flight last twenty four hours?
Yes, it was a 24-hour flight. Այո, դա 24 ժամանոց թռիչք էր:
- Is the contract for two years?
Yes, it is a two-year contract.
- Does the bus tour from Yerevan to Goris take five hours?
Yes, it takes five hours for the bus tour from Yerevan to Goris.
- Does this car cost 6 thousand dollars?
Yes, this car costs 6 thousand dollars.
A Creative Task
Limits of our knowledge
(The text is taken from the text-book First Certificate PassKey)
In recent years a lot of publicity has been given to the problem of global warming caused by the so-called greenhouse effect.
It is worth pointing out, however, that not all scientists agree about the causes of warming or, indeed, if it is happening at all. Moreover, it is important to remember that reliable records have only existed for 130 years, which is a very short period in climatic terms. While this has been a particularly warm decade, we know that there have been other warm, and cold, periods in history, although we have no precise records about them.
In other words, recent changes in the climate could be explained by natural variations.
Besides the lack of convincing evidence, there is a tendency for this type of issue to get too much publicity and to become fashionable, which, in my opinion, does not help the scientists. Science is about making calculations and predictions and building up theories that must be tested, and often only time will tell us the real answer.
So, bearing this in mind, it is important to be aware of the possible consequences of problems like global warming, but it is also necessary to remain realistic about the nature of scientific research and the limits of our knowledge.
Useful expressions in essay writing
It is worth pointing out, however, that … Այնուամենայնիվ, արժե նշել, որ …
indeed – իսկապես
Moreover, it is important to remember that …–Դեռ ավելին, կարևոր է հիշել, որ …
while – այս նախադասության մեջ՝ նույնիսկ չնայած
in other words — այլ կերպ ասած
Besides the lack of convincing evidence …- Բացի այն բանից, որ չկա համոզիչ վկայություն …
There is a tendency for this type of issue … միտում կա
in my opinion – իմ կարծիքով
So, bearing this in mind …but … also – Այսպիսով, հաշվի առնելով սա … բայց նաև
Write an essay using the above-mentioned expressions in bold type.
What will the future of Armenia be?
Armenia has always been in dilemma for centuries. When we look back at the history of Armenia we can see so many challenges, struggles, and suffering. We have seen genocide, World war, devastating earthquakes, the Karabagh war, and war in Armenia. We got independence, presidential changes, and even the velvet revolution. Armenia had ups and downs and has always hoped for a bright future, indeed.
Currently, the situation in Armenia still stays unstable. It looks like many global issues and problems are hard to find solutions for. One of them is the Karabagh conflict. After the loss of some territories and the loss of many lives, we still do not find peaceful decisions between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Moreover, it is important to remember that we still have soldiers in the prisons of Azerbaijan, who are not being treated fairly. It is worth pointing out, however, that despite Russia, Europe and USA getting involved in the regional conflict, and people do not give up and continue finding ways to find strength and hope.
No one can tell what the future of Armenia is, because the future is unpredictable. There are several ways that it might go for our country. If the government starts making smart decisions and correct choices for our country, then things might start getting into their places.